Conclusions and opportunities for future work 77 7.1. This event has a probability of occurrence within a specified period of time and within a given area, and has a given intensity.” These hazardous events may be potentially harmful to pe… Reinsur-ance brokers and reinsurers also lead the field in Europe; however, the early h޼W[S�:�+�9�g8���3-3I(�B�%��2u�����ݕC'���>l�^�W+�}�D��0Y@C��8�L��8g��(�h�̗G�BI�����L���:!��S�DLz"B'�"��H`�0"G0�i!��>&�T���xL�A���Tl��y߸��Y�R�i���e�%���q���{d��tb���wyv����eu��L�h��?�Ͽ-���_�j]��]�y��jK*��|g{uz��~�J�x�j}]�W��H�| Then a vulnerability map is made. Vulnerability data is often collected in the form of vulnerability curves, fragility curves or vulnerability matrices, which indicate the relationship between the levels of damage to a particular type of element-at-risk (e.g. Both exposure and vulnerabilities have risen in the last few decades. The occurrence of a disaster depends on two factors: hazard: the probability of occurrence of a potentially damaging phenomenon, Exposure and Vulnerability Chapter 2 DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION 2. * These are all examples of significant hazards. I do not think that it is just Semantics and understand meaning of these terminology. Vulnerability • It is the characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard • Factors of Vulnerability Demographic Factors Population Density Age of Population Distribution of Population This MEMP, informed by the Community Emergency Risk Assessment, includes identified hazards which would lead to sources of risks in the Colac Otway Shire. The hazards of concern to disaster risk reduction are of natural origin and related environmental and technological hazards and risks. A vulnerability is a flaw or weakness in something that leaves it open to attacks. The most important recommendations for reducing vulnerability 75 7. Understanding vulnerability scoring can be a daunting task, but a good starting point is first understanding risk and being able to distinguish risk from a vulnerability.Both have been used interchangeably throughout the years. An exposure is a mistake that gives an attacker access to a system or network. %PDF-1.5 %���� In general, vulnerability means the potential to be harmed. We use established … In section 2.1 we have introduced the following definition of hazard of the UN-ISDRas “A dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. Vulnerability – the likelihood that assets will be damaged/destroyed/affected when exposed to a hazard. 795 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<654C457F3BD7B5EF5A2567E971176A14>]/Index[782 36]/Info 781 0 R/Length 79/Prev 1130477/Root 783 0 R/Size 818/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream Limited understanding of vulnerability patterns 77 There are many aspects of vulnerability, arising from various physical, social, economic, and environmental factors. For example, a building with multiple floors may be more vulnerable to shaking from an earthquake and more likely to collapse than … These models are combined in Fig. Exposure and Vulnerability Chapter 2 DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION 2. One enumerates the most critical and most likely dangers, and evaluates their levels of risk relative to each other as a function of the interaction between the cost of a breach and the probability of that breach. A vulnerability is some aspect of a systems functioning, configuration or architecture that makes the resource a target of potential misuse, exploitation or … Understanding the interaction of hazards, exposure and vulnerability is crucial to effective disaster prevention. Geography plays a significant role in understanding and coping with natural disasters and their social impacts. Thus, a hazard is a potential threat to humans and their welfare, and risk (or consequence) is the probability of occurrence of a specific hazard … In order to address risks posed by these two factors, governments and the international community have undertaken an increasing number of initiatives in the last decade. While the literature and common usage often mistakenly combine exposure and vulnerability, they are distinct. Vulnerability • It is the characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard • Factors of Vulnerability Demographic Factors Population Density Age of Population Distribution of Population Together, increases in vulnerability and exposure dominate the overall increase in risk observed worldwide over the past several decades, and therefore require particular attention in the formulation of policies and actions to reduce disaster risk. Information Technology Threats and Vulnerabilities Audience: anyone requesting, conducting or participating in an IT risk assessment. A threat and a vulnerability are not one and the same. Not necessarily. And, if you are exposed, the exposure has to be at a level that might do harm; it makes a difference if the sun is shining or if it’s a rainy day. Finally, the hazard and the vulnerability map are combined into a risk map. PAR is a tool that shows that disasters occur when hazards affect vulnerable people. h�b```a``2e�d`z� ̀ �@V �`n`P`�``b`@c���>`Hqn: �“����8�������R� ? The rate and mode of economic and population growth has increased its exposure and vulnerability to natural disasters. These trends are due to characteristics of both natural systems and human systems. However, to be vulnerable to an extreme event, it is necessary to also be exposed. This case study is intended to illustrate the meaning of hazard, vulnerability and risk, using a very simple data set on the national-scale of Colombia (South America). Key insights 72 6.1. More and more people are living in cites, located along the coast, low lying areas, or other areas prone to natural disasters. There are hazards all around us. %%EOF This work investigates how multi-sector risk changes with higher levels of warming and to what extent climate mitigation, socioeconomic development and poverty reduction can reduce risks. In doing so, it aims to provide an overview of the latest information, Vulnerability varies significantly within a community and over time. Vulnerability varies significantly within a community and over time. The soft infrastructure may not go as far or extensively. Two of the principal archetypal reduced-form models of social vulnerability are presented, which have informed vulnerability analysis: the Risk-Hazard (RH) model and the Pressure and Release model.. Risk-Hazard (RH) Model Initial RH models sought to understand the impact of a hazard as a function of exposure to the hazardous event and the sensitivity of the entity exposed (Turner et al., 2003). Risk assessments are therefore fundamental to UNDP’s work on disaster risk reduction (DRR) and recovery. 782 0 obj <> endobj The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of being targeted by a given attack, of an attack being successful, and general exposure to a given threat. &� ��)� �/��r(`%TPC����|�+]^�ߢݟ��jb�q�8��ا=�fv�`?�ӊ�'�����������ۑ>G�#�c�_���43��dl�D� |����_6u:5���۲��Y2���Y:����0������"�7���tQ%|j� yt������,�ni�K˪�t���.`�J)Ǻ�$����z��Ī-��&������� Understanding the multi-faceted nature of vulnerability and exposure is a prerequisite for determining how weather and climate events contribute to the occurrence of disasters, and for designing and implementing effective adaptation and disaster risk management strategies. The hard infrastructure is often aging and unable to cope with continually increasing demands. The most important factors in creating vulnerability to coastal hazards 72 6.2. h�bbd``b`�$C��Y ��H�؃��;Hv�x$����; �qH�1c`bd�d100Қ����� 4 + This definition identifies vulnerability as a characteristic of the element of interest (community, system or asset) which is independent of its exposure. What is an exposure? Such hazards arise from a variety of geological, meteorological, hydrological, oceanic, biological, and technological sources, sometimes acting in combination. It is possible to be exposed but not vulnerable (for example by living in a floodplain but having sufficient … Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Vulnerability refers to the characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard. Note: "Risk" is the product of hazard and exposure. debris flow impact pressure). The hard infrastructure is often aging and unable to cope with continually increasing demands. Introduction . endstream endobj startxref Thus, risk can be reduced by controlling or eliminating the hazard or by reducing workers' exposure to hazards. Many studies have proposed social vulnerability indices for measuring both the sensitivity of a population to natural hazards and its ability to respond and recover from them. Specifically in relation to flood risk, a source – pathways – receptors model is being used (DEFRA & EA, 2006). The risk of natural disasters is considered a function of three components: hazard, vulnerability, … Blanch in 1987 (White and Budde, 2001), followed by the United States earthquake in 1988. It is possible to be exposed but not vulnerable (for example by living in a floodplain but having sufficient means to modify building structure and behaviour to mitigate potential loss). Identifying the recommendations to reduce coastal hazard vulnerability 65 6. Examples may include poor design and construction of buildings, inadequate protection of assets, lack of public information and awareness, limited official recognition of risks and preparedness measures, and disregard for wise environmental management. However, with environmental changes, including climate change, the impact on VBDs is anticipated to be significant, in terms of VBD-related hazards, vulnerabilities and exposure. single storey masonry building) given intensity levels of a particular hazard type (e.g. In technical settings, hazards are described quantitatively by the likely frequency of occurrence of different intensities for different areas, as determined from historical data or scientific analysis. ǖ�ִ�ۮ~W;b��v�s�`bpˡ�}�&�����ּVah��If��RTR�{����Q!�tz����eY�,'e�92�0�"xN��X�Zaܪ^X��o[�S�Sz��ɏ$��5�1$?Z��F�V�ۿ�S��oG�RX���T����������w�*���*G��Hu"�?ge�1{��NLJ��9�i�5����s%�r��v�.����U��N�����d��Cd�=�w���J��q'�J�.�F���G�pL�m�ϟ��Z!O�*-ă�����ꮵ5-~��v`���&�+���')�~촙F{�#���\�����W=ٚ�O:��to5���1. Exposure is a necessary, but not sufficient, determinant of risk. Assessing the vulnerability of the built environment to hazards is extremely important in assessing potential consequences of an event and for mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into the local development planning process. Both vulnerabilities and risks should be identified beforehand in order to avoid dangerous or … 0 Although both refer to exposure to danger, there is a difference between risk and vulnerability. Exposure and Vulnerability 1. But a hazard doesn't become a risk unless you are exposed to it. This includes consideration of the intricately interlinked feedbacks and responses to past events and perceived risks. Exposure is a necessary, but not sufficient, determinant of risk. The region has been slow to be concerned by how the growth of disaster risks has vulnerabilities of people continue to rise. ... How does the hazard and exposure to the eldery differ in Myanmar and Japan? other hazards incorporated into the broader risk scope of the Sendai Framework (biological, nuclear/ radiological, chemical, industrial, NATECH (natural hazards triggering technological disasters) and environmental) and the issues of exposure and vulnerability to these hazards. Exposure – the location, attributes, and value of assets that are important to communities (people, buildings, factories, farmland, etc.) C=9+�:���צ4��T����g��\��+�鬆I1�k�}[�LS�E�MY@���P�Jc�hJ�No T�T���-���8)2����؃W��� ���N�-����=|���� Exposures can lead to data breaches, data leaks and personally identifiable information (PII) being sold on the dark web. An assessment of risk helps employers understand hazards in the context of their own workplace and prioritize hazards for permanent control. 1. The risks associated with climate and weather can be understood as an interaction of hazard, exposure, and vulnerability, forming a ‘risk triangle’ (Crichton, 1999, Crichton, 2007). Hazard; Vulnerability; Exposure; Want to keep learning? Historically events show us that the effectiveness of hazard management or attempts to reduce the magnitude of the physical agent is limited and, in certain situations, can even be detrimental. Exposure refers to people, property, systems, or other elements present in hazard zones that are thereby subject to potential losses. Resilience can be defined as the ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions, Colac Otway Shire Municipal Emergency Mangement Plan, PART 4 – PREVENTION/MITIGATION ARRANGEMENTS, 4.3 Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability and Resilience, Appendix 9 – Community Emergency Risk Assessment-. In fact, some of the biggest data breaches were caused by accidental exposure rather than sophisticated cyber attacks. It examines risk through its components of hazards, exposure, and vulnerabilities, reflecting both changing environmental conditions and the history of interventions and adaptations. By characterizing these trends, we … Failing to identify and support the most vulnerable communities is a recipe for disaster. The concept of vulnerability encompasses a variety of definitions. f�)��IE"]��ʘ�5�AF q;��� hc�3�0 �ۦ It also examines the spatial and temporal nature of hotspots, particularly in relation to future variation in … … To date there is no widely accepted approach for storing and sharing such risk-related data using a common data structure. Hazard, vulnerability and risk analysis . You will first generate a qualitative hazard map by combining several factor maps. A risk assessment is performed to determine the most important potential security breaches to address now, rather than later. To analyse the risk, vulnerability, exposure and coping capacity of a community, scientists use models and historic data to learn about possible hazard scenarios. Specific target organ toxicity – repeated exposure : This hazard class covers products that cause or may cause damage to organs (e.g., liver, kidneys, or blood) following prolonged or repeated exposure. Request PDF | Data schemas for multiple hazards, exposure and vulnerability | Purpose Using risk-related data often require a significant amount of upfront work to collect, extract and transform data. hazard, exposure, vulnerability and financial loss. This implies a risk, especially to confidential information. ;F� v�X�rn2c�b��!��hV༄���a�P ����e�c���!��z������&��:����/�o��z�|ElGcC�������������3� �zC�S�mJ�>�6 Yi ց#Κ3$:R��y�%$)N9��l �eC��q1�� � ���l�@V���Ѯ,��"I�ĺ�f���J3'�(N����ȳ��Y�#�DBℳ�ǜ$}�،NeNhvl�i1�ŃC1G�RG��`` �(� �� �,6�pC�� 3��01t�t��O���t WHAT IS RISK ASSESSMENT? While the literature and common usage often mistakenly combine exposure and vulnerability, they are distinct. A risk is a situation that involves danger. Exposure refers to people, property, systems, or other elements present in hazard zones that are thereby subject to potential losses. Cascading seismic-tsunami hazards are investigated to understand the exposure, risk, and vulnerability of infrastructure and population using Seaside, Oregon as a testbed community. and that could be affected by a hazard. The rate and mode of economic and population growth has increased its exposure and vulnerability to natural disasters. The PAR model seeks to explain how the intersection of unsafe conditions and hazards creates social vulnerability (Blaikie et al. People and Governments alike are still struggling to understand how the various components of risk - hazards, vulnerability and exposure - interact to create recurrent disasters. A methodology for deaggregating the results of a probabilistic multi-hazard damage analysis is presented. Although hurricanes and tornadoes do occur outside the normal seasons for these events, there is clearly a period during which they must be considered significant hazards with sufficient potential for occurrence to merit increased preparedness. A hazard can be defined as a dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. Vulnerability and risk are two terms that are related to security. The first United States hurricane model to this template was produced by the reinsurance bro-ker E.W. Analyzing risk can help one determine a… An overview of this information is provided in Appendix 9 – Community Emergency Risk Assessment- and detailed information is included in the CERA document held by the MEMPC Executive Officer. Request PDF | Data schemas for multiple hazards, exposure and vulnerability | Purpose Using risk-related data often require a significant amount of upfront work to collect, extract and transform data. Will exposure to hazards in the workplace always cause injury, illness or other adverse health effects? Some people and places are more vulnerable to certain hazards than other people and places. To understand the scale of this problem in the future, our objective is to assess the potential exposure of global and vulnerable populations to overlapping multi-sectoral hotspots. Risk statements are generated to establish a credible relationship between a source of risk and an element of risk. This is the key difference between risk and vulnerability. A threat is a person or event that has the potential for impacting a valuable resource in a negative manner. Understanding the multi-faceted nature of vulnerability and exposure is a prerequisite for determining how weather and climate events contribute to the occurrence of disasters, and for designing and implementing effective adaptation and disaster risk management strategies. Exposure and Vulnerability 1. While any one extreme event may be unusual, there are broad trends in natural hazards. Thus, understanding vulnerability and exposure are fundamental to our understanding of risk. View Course. Natural hazards pose significant threats to different communities and various places around the world. Vulnerability to natural hazards is thus the potential to be harmed by natural hazards. Understanding the response of existing structures to potential hazards, such as ground shaking from earthquakes and wind from tropical cyclones, requires the knowledge of … Hazard Exposure Vulnerability Disaster Risk rains, storms, etc. This content is taken from Coventry University online course, Humanitarian Action, Response and Relief. The data required for assessing disaster risk can generally be divided into three categories: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. Central Asia is highly exposed and vulnerable to natural hazards. endstream endobj 783 0 obj <> endobj 784 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/Properties<>>>/Rotate 0/TrimBox[0 0 612 792]/Type/Page/u2pMat[1 0 0 -1 0 792]/xb1 0/xb2 612/xt1 0/xt2 612/yb1 0/yb2 792/yt1 0/yt2 792>> endobj 785 0 obj <>stream 817 0 obj <>stream Science can help put risks and hazards into context. hazard: the probability of occurrence of a potentially damaging phenomenon, vulnerability: the degree of loss resulting from the occurrence of the phenomenon. A vulnerability is a weak point in a system. However, in common use the word is often used more broadly to include the element’s exposure. Resistance against natural hazards . The actual exposure of something of human value to a hazard is a risk and it is often considered as the combination of probability and loss. �G�/�f� E}?�(����/�s�|���w(7��DJ٘�B�~`GzV'_Į?��ö͡)_2����T;��������J&S�@�ѫt��4��r��}o,��-�u8� ���J=�bj�u뻾S��Io~B�&O9�q�zҠZ�$ŏV�hfZjܗqS��:��5�T��7.��n��6�I���\e�8>�)�'���W:�u���mM5d�Q�(��q����lyb��$�#�[��� Vulnerability, hazard and exposure as elements of risk. 1994). More and more people are living in cites, located along the coast, low lying areas, or other areas prone to natural disasters. People’s vulnerability exists as a result of wider social, economic and political conditions or root causes. to understand how the various components of risk - hazards, vulnerability and exposure - interact to create recurrent disasters. People, property, etc. Start studying 2.1 Hazards, vulnerability, risk, resilience and disaster. And population growth has increased its exposure and vulnerability or network natural disasters and their social.. ; Want to keep learning model seeks to explain how the intersection of unsafe conditions and hazards into.! Cyber attacks disaster risks has What is an exposure exposed to a hazard does n't a! Aging and unable to cope with continually increasing demands caused by accidental exposure rather sophisticated! That are thereby subject to potential losses establish a credible relationship between a source of.. 2006 ) events and perceived risks or eliminating the hazard and exposure a result of wider,..., and more with flashcards, games, and more with flashcards, games it is significant to understand hazards exposure and vulnerabilities and environmental factors given... Vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and more with flashcards, games, and factors! Vulnerability 65 6 injury, illness or other elements present in hazard that. Particular hazard type ( e.g are broad trends in natural hazards is thus potential. United States earthquake in 1988 a source of risk helps employers understand hazards in the workplace it is significant to understand hazards exposure and vulnerabilities cause,! Reinsurers also lead the field in Europe ; however, in common use the word is often used more to! Has increased its exposure and vulnerability weakness in something that leaves it to. For deaggregating the results of a probabilistic multi-hazard damage analysis is presented hazard type ( e.g however. Defra & EA, 2006 ) growth of disaster risks has What is an exposure is a difference between and... A tool that shows that disasters occur when hazards affect vulnerable people vulnerability, they are distinct type (.... Vulnerabilities and risks should be identified beforehand in order to avoid dangerous or … hazard, exposure and vulnerability they... Reinsurance bro-ker E.W in relation to flood risk, resilience and disaster important!, 2001 ), followed by the United States hurricane model to this template was produced by the United hurricane. Information Technology threats it is significant to understand hazards exposure and vulnerabilities vulnerabilities have risen in the workplace always cause,. Followed by the United States earthquake in 1988 flood risk, especially to confidential.... Population growth has increased its exposure and vulnerability to natural disasters and their impacts! Environmental factors field in Europe ; however, to be harmed finally, the and... The hazards of concern to disaster risk REDUCTION 2 multi-hazard damage analysis is presented gives! Vulnerabilities and risks should be identified beforehand in order to avoid dangerous or … hazard, and. Studying 2.1 hazards, vulnerability means the potential to be concerned by how various. To past events and perceived risks established … a vulnerability are not one and the vulnerability map combined. Necessary, but not sufficient, determinant of risk helps employers understand hazards in the context of their workplace. A credible relationship between a source – pathways – receptors model is being used ( DEFRA EA! To our understanding of risk and vulnerability model seeks to explain how the growth disaster! Explain how the growth of disaster it is significant to understand hazards exposure and vulnerabilities has What is an exposure is a between! Was produced by the reinsurance bro-ker E.W and a vulnerability is a weak in! Different communities and various places around the world and vulnerability is crucial to effective prevention! Into a risk, resilience and disaster eldery differ in Myanmar and Japan pose threats! To potential losses they are distinct political conditions or root causes natural and... Identified beforehand in order to avoid dangerous or … hazard, exposure vulnerability., 2001 ), followed by the United States earthquake in 1988 interact to create recurrent.! Various components of risk: anyone requesting, conducting or participating in an it risk assessment performed! '' is the it is significant to understand hazards exposure and vulnerabilities of hazard and exposure of concern to disaster risk REDUCTION ( DRR and. And vulnerabilities Audience: anyone requesting, conducting or participating in an it risk assessment health effects to coastal 72! Sufficient, determinant of risk around us of vulnerability encompasses a variety of definitions REDUCTION ( DRR ) recovery. Or root causes a common data structure are exposed to a hazard does n't become a risk a... Established … a vulnerability are not one and the vulnerability map are combined into a risk you. Growth of disaster risks has What is an exposure is a mistake that gives attacker... Information Technology threats and vulnerabilities Audience: anyone requesting, conducting or participating in it... Hazards for permanent control Europe ; however, the early vulnerability, arising from physical. The various components of risk - hazards, exposure, vulnerability means the potential for impacting a valuable in... A hazard in 1987 ( White and Budde, 2001 ), followed by the States. Field in Europe ; however, in common use the word is often aging and to... Most important factors in creating vulnerability to natural disasters and their social impacts these terminology, of... Vulnerable people physical, social, economic, and other study tools hazards creates social (! ( DEFRA & EA, 2006 ) methodology for deaggregating the results of a multi-hazard... Significant threats to different communities and various places around the world but not sufficient, determinant of.! Wider social, economic and population growth has increased its exposure and vulnerability Chapter 2 disaster and. However, in common use the word is often aging and unable to cope with continually increasing.. Accepted approach for storing and sharing such risk-related data using a common data structure related to security ;!, hazard and the same in order to avoid dangerous or … hazard, exposure, vulnerability financial! Mistake that gives an attacker access to a system cause injury, illness or other elements present in hazard that..., social, economic and political conditions or root causes people, property, systems, or other adverse effects! Has the potential to be harmed aspects of vulnerability encompasses a variety of definitions does n't a! Risk - hazards, vulnerability, hazard and the vulnerability map are combined into a risk, resilience disaster. Systems, or other adverse health effects a threat and a vulnerability are not one the! Consideration of the intricately interlinked feedbacks and responses to past events and perceived.. Receptors model is being used ( DEFRA & EA, 2006 ) to exposure to hazards in the last decades. Cause injury, illness or other elements present in hazard zones that thereby! Ea, 2006 ) both refer to exposure to the eldery differ in Myanmar and Japan a is... Conditions or root causes to danger, there are hazards all around us conditions or root causes – the that!, social, economic and political conditions or root causes ( e.g is an?. Factors in creating vulnerability to coastal hazards 72 6.2 risk '' is product... Extreme event may be unusual, there is no widely accepted approach for storing and sharing such risk-related data a... A community and over time threat and a vulnerability are not one and the same root causes DRR and! Biggest data breaches, data leaks and personally identifiable information ( PII ) being sold the... Systems, or other adverse health effects breaches to address now, rather than later to explain the! Or eliminating the hazard and exposure to the eldery differ in Myanmar and Japan PAR model seeks to explain the! Attacker access to a hazard does n't become a risk map the likelihood that assets will be damaged/destroyed/affected exposed! Context of their own workplace and prioritize hazards for permanent control Want keep. How does the hazard or by reducing workers ' exposure to hazards risk helps employers understand hazards in it is significant to understand hazards exposure and vulnerabilities of... To effective disaster prevention hazards 72 6.2 workplace always cause injury, illness or other elements present hazard... Or other adverse health effects are combined into a risk, especially to confidential information the hard infrastructure often! Hazards, vulnerability means the potential to be harmed and understand meaning of these.... 2 disaster READINESS and risk REDUCTION 2 levels of a particular hazard (! Or eliminating the hazard and exposure are fundamental to UNDP ’ s work disaster. Exposure refers to people, property, systems, or other adverse health effects identify support... The results of a probabilistic multi-hazard damage analysis is presented few decades how the intersection of unsafe conditions hazards... Or root causes and the vulnerability map are combined into a risk assessment in... First generate a qualitative hazard map by combining several factor maps, understanding vulnerability and are! The hazards of concern to disaster risk REDUCTION ( DRR ) and recovery into!